In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:
1. "Accounting services" means services that are commonly and historically performed by accountants, including recording or summarizing financial transactions, bookkeeping, analyzing or verifying financial information, auditing, reviewing or compiling financial statements, reporting financial results, financial planning, providing attestation or tax or consulting services.
2. "Accredited institution" means any public or private regionally or nationally accredited college or university that is accredited by an organization recognized by the council for higher education accreditation or its successor agency.
3. "Attest services" means the following services that are rendered by the holder of a certificate issued by the board:
(a) Audits or other engagements to be performed in accordance with the statements on auditing standards adopted by the American institute of certified public accountants.
(b) Reviews of financial statements to be performed in accordance with the statements on standards for accounting and review services adopted by the American institute of certified public accountants.
(c) Any examination of prospective financial information to be performed in accordance with the statements on standards for attestation engagements adopted by the American institute of certified public accountants.
(d) Any engagement to be performed in accordance with the standards of the public company accounting oversight board or its successor.
(e) Any examination, review or agreed on procedure engagement to be performed in accordance with the statements on standards for attestation engagements adopted by the American institute of certified public accountants, other than an examination described in subdivision (c) of this paragraph.
4. "Attestation" or "attest function" means the issuance by a registrant of a written communication that expresses a conclusion about the reliability of a written assertion that is the responsibility of another party.
5. "Board" means the Arizona state board of accountancy established by section 32-702.
6. "Certified public accountant" means an individual who has been issued a certificate of authority by the board to practice as a certified public accountant or who meets the limited reciprocity privilege requirements pursuant to section 32-725.
7. "Client" means a person or entity, other than one's employer, for whom accounting services are provided.
8. "Consulting services" includes management advisory services, litigation support services, valuation services and other services that require the use of technical skills, education, observation, experience and knowledge to develop an analytical approach to process and to present findings, conclusions or recommendations.
9. "Conviction" means a judgment of conviction by any state or federal court of competent jurisdiction in a criminal cause, regardless of whether an appeal is pending or could be taken, and includes any judgment or order based on a plea of no contest.
10. "Disciplinary action" means any other regulatory sanctions imposed by the board in combination with, or as an alternative to, revocation or suspension of a certificate or registration, including the imposition of:
(a) An administrative penalty in an amount not to exceed two thousand dollars for each violation of this chapter or rules adopted pursuant to this chapter.
(b) Restrictions on the scope of the registrant's accounting practice, including, without limitation, restriction of audit or attest function practice, restriction of tax practice or restriction of consulting services.
(c) Pre-issuance and post-issuance peer review.
(d) Professional education requirements.
(e) A decree of censure.
(f) Probation requirements best adapted to protect the public welfare.
(g) Reimbursement of the board's costs of investigations and proceedings initiated under this chapter, including attorney fees.
(h) A requirement for restitution payments to accounting services clients or to other persons suffering economic loss resulting from violations of this chapter or rules adopted pursuant to this chapter.
11. "Employer" means a person or entity that hires an individual to perform a service and that directs and controls the manner in which the service is performed.
12. "Federal securities laws" means the securities act of 1933, the securities exchange act of 1934, the public utility holding company act of 1935 and the investment company act of 1940, as amended.
13. "Financial statements":
(a) Means statements and footnotes related to statements that purport to show a financial position or changes in a financial position in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles or other comprehensive basis of accounting.
(b) Includes balance sheets, statements of income, statements of retained earnings, statements of cash flows, statements of changes in an owner's equity and other commonly used or recognized summaries of financial information.
(c) Does not include tax returns or information contained in tax returns.
14. "Firm" means a business organization that is engaged in the practice of public accounting and that is established under the laws of any state or foreign country, including a sole practitioner, partnership, professional corporation, professional limited liability company, limited liability company, limited liability partnership or any other entity recognized by the board that has met the applicable requirements contained in section 32-731.
15. "Good cause" means factors that temporarily prevent a registrant from satisfying a particular requirement in a specific instance as determined by the board and may include:
(a) A disability.
(b) An illness.
(c) A physical or mental condition.
(d) Military service.
(e) Financial hardship.
(f) A natural disaster.
(g) Any condition or circumstance that the board deems relevant.
16. "Jurisdiction" means, for the purposes of examination, certification or limited reciprocity privilege, the fifty states of the United States, the District of Columbia, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the northern Mariana Islands or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
17. "Letter of concern" means an advisory letter to notify a registrant that, while the evidence does not warrant disciplinary action, the board believes that the registrant should modify or eliminate certain practices and that continuation of the activities that led to the evidence being submitted to the board may result in board action against the registrant. A letter of concern is not a disciplinary action.
18. "Limited reciprocity privilege" means the permission to practice as a certified public accountant in this state pursuant to section 32-725 for an individual whose principal place of business is outside of this state.
19. "Management advisory services" means advisory services consisting of the development of findings, conclusions or recommendations for the recipient's consideration and decision making.
20. "Practice of accounting" means providing accounting services for a client or an employer.
21. "Practice of public accounting" means providing accounting services for a client but does not include providing accounting services, other than attest services or compilation services, for a nonprofit entity or a family member without an expectation of and without receiving compensation.
22. "Principal place of business" means the office designated by the individual or firm as the principal location for the practice of accounting.
23. "Public accountant" means an individual who has been issued a certificate of authority by the board to practice as a public accountant.
24. "Registrant" means any certified public accountant, public accountant or firm that is registered with the board.
25. "Related courses" means:
(a) Business administration.
(c) Computer science, information systems or data processing.
(g) Business law.
(h) College algebra or more advanced mathematics.
(i) Advanced written communication.
(j) Advanced oral communication.
(m) Other courses closely related to the subject of accounting and satisfactory to the board.