42-5061. Retail classification; definitions

 

(L18, Ch. 104, sec. 15, & Ch. 249, sec. 1)

 

A. The retail classification is comprised of the business of selling tangible personal property at retail. The tax base for the retail classification is the gross proceeds of sales or gross income derived from the business.  The tax imposed on the retail classification does not apply to the gross proceeds of sales or gross income from:

1. Professional or personal service occupations or businesses that involve sales or transfers of tangible personal property only as inconsequential elements.

2. Services rendered in addition to selling tangible personal property at retail.

3. Sales of warranty or service contracts. The storage, use or consumption of tangible personal property provided under the conditions of such contracts is subject to tax under section 42-5156.

4. Sales of tangible personal property by any nonprofit organization organized and operated exclusively for charitable purposes and recognized by the United States internal revenue service under section 501(c)(3) of the internal revenue code.

5. Sales to persons engaged in business classified under the restaurant classification of articles used by human beings for food, drink or condiment, whether simple, mixed or compounded.

6. Business activity that is properly included in any other business classification that is taxable under this article.

7. The sale of stocks and bonds.

8. Drugs and medical oxygen, including delivery hose, mask or tent, regulator and tank, on the prescription of a member of the medical, dental or veterinarian profession who is licensed by law to administer such substances.

9. Prosthetic appliances as defined in section 23-501 and as prescribed or recommended by a health professional who is licensed pursuant to title 32, chapter 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 or 29.

10. Insulin, insulin syringes and glucose test strips.

11. Prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses.

12. Hearing aids as defined in section 36-1901.

13. Durable medical equipment that has a centers for medicare and medicaid services common procedure code, is designated reimbursable by medicare, is prescribed by a person who is licensed under title 32, chapter 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 17 or 29, can withstand repeated use, is primarily and customarily used to serve a medical purpose, is generally not useful to a person in the absence of illness or injury and is appropriate for use in the home.

14. Sales of motor vehicles to nonresidents of this state for use outside this state if the motor vehicle dealer ships or delivers the motor vehicle to a destination out of this state.

15. Food, as provided in and subject to the conditions of article 3 of this chapter and section 42-5074.

16. Items purchased with United States department of agriculture coupons issued under the supplemental nutrition assistance program pursuant to the food and nutrition act of 2008 (P.L. 88-525; 78 Stat 703; 7 United States Code sections 2011 through 2036b) by the United States department of agriculture food and nutrition service or food instruments issued under section 17 of the child nutrition act (P.L. 95-627; 92 Stat. 3603; P.L. 99-661, section 4302; P.L. 111-296; 42 United States Code section 1786).

17. Textbooks by any bookstore that are required by any state university or community college.

18. Food and drink to a person that is engaged in a business that is classified under the restaurant classification and that provides such food and drink without monetary charge to its employees for their own consumption on the premises during the employees' hours of employment.

19. Articles of food, drink or condiment and accessory tangible personal property to a school district or charter school if such articles and accessory tangible personal property are to be prepared and served to persons for consumption on the premises of a public school within the district or on the premises of the charter school during school hours.

20. Lottery tickets or shares pursuant to title 5, chapter 5.1, article 1.

21. The sale of cash equivalents and the sale of precious metal bullion and monetized bullion to the ultimate consumer, but the sale of coins or other forms of money for manufacture into jewelry or works of art is subject to the tax and the gross proceeds of sales or gross income derived from the redemption of any cash equivalent by the holder as a means of payment for goods or services that are taxable under this article is subject to the tax.  For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a) "Cash equivalents" means items or intangibles, whether or not negotiable, that are sold to one or more persons, through which a value denominated in money is purchased in advance and may be redeemed in full or in part for tangible personal property, intangibles or services. Cash equivalents include gift cards, stored value cards, gift certificates, vouchers, traveler's checks, money orders or other instruments, orders or electronic mechanisms, such as an electronic code, personal identification number or digital payment mechanism, or any other prepaid intangible right to acquire tangible personal property, intangibles or services in the future, whether from the seller of the cash equivalent or from another person.  Cash equivalents do not include either of the following:

(i) Items or intangibles that are sold to one or more persons, through which a value is not denominated in money.

(ii) Prepaid calling cards or prepaid authorization numbers for telecommunications services made taxable by subsection P of this section.

(b) "Monetized bullion" means coins and other forms of money that are manufactured from gold, silver or other metals and that have been or are used as a medium of exchange in this or another state, the United States or a foreign nation.

(c) "Precious metal bullion" means precious metal, including gold, silver, platinum, rhodium and palladium, that has been smelted or refined so that its value depends on its contents and not on its form.

22. Motor vehicle fuel and use fuel that are subject to a tax imposed under title 28, chapter 16, article 1, sales of use fuel to a holder of a valid single trip use fuel tax permit issued under section 28-5739, sales of aviation fuel that are subject to the tax imposed under section 28-8344 and sales of jet fuel that are subject to the tax imposed under article 8 of this chapter.

23. Tangible personal property sold to a person engaged in the business of leasing or renting such property under the personal property rental classification if such property is to be leased or rented by such person.

24. Tangible personal property sold in interstate or foreign commerce if prohibited from being so taxed by the constitution of the United States or the constitution of this state.

25. Tangible personal property sold to:

(a) A qualifying hospital as defined in section 42-5001.

(b) A qualifying health care organization as defined in section 42-5001 if the tangible personal property is used by the organization solely to provide health and medical related educational and charitable services.

(c) A qualifying health care organization as defined in section 42-5001 if the organization is dedicated to providing educational, therapeutic, rehabilitative and family medical education training for blind and visually impaired children and children with multiple disabilities from the time of birth to age twenty-one.

(d) A qualifying community health center as defined in section 42-5001.

(e) A nonprofit charitable organization that has qualified under section 501(c)(3) of the internal revenue code and that regularly serves meals to the needy and indigent on a continuing basis at no cost.

(f) For taxable periods beginning from and after June 30, 2001, a nonprofit charitable organization that has qualified under section 501(c)(3) of the internal revenue code and that provides residential apartment housing for low income persons over sixty-two years of age in a facility that qualifies for a federal housing subsidy, if the tangible personal property is used by the organization solely to provide residential apartment housing for low income persons over sixty-two years of age in a facility that qualifies for a federal housing subsidy.

(g) A qualifying health sciences educational institution as defined in section 42-5001.

(h) Any person representing or working on behalf of another person described in subdivisions (a) through (g) of this paragraph if the tangible personal property is incorporated or fabricated into a project described in section 42-5075, subsection O.

26. Magazines or other periodicals or other publications by this state to encourage tourist travel.

27. Tangible personal property sold to:

(a) A person that is subject to tax under this article by reason of being engaged in business classified under section 42-5075 or to a subcontractor working under the control of a person engaged in business classified under section 42-5075, if the property so sold is any of the following:

(i) Incorporated or fabricated by the person into any real property, structure, project, development or improvement as part of the business.

(ii) Incorporated or fabricated by the person into any project described in section 42-5075, subsection O.

(iii) Used in environmental response or remediation activities under section 42-5075, subsection B, paragraph 6.

(b) A person that is not subject to tax under section 42-5075 and that has been provided a copy of a certificate under section 42-5009, subsection L, if the property so sold is incorporated or fabricated by the person into the real property, structure, project, development or improvement described in the certificate.

28. The sale of a motor vehicle to:

(a) A nonresident of this state if the purchaser's state of residence does not allow a corresponding use tax exemption to the tax imposed by article 1 of this chapter and if the nonresident has secured a special ninety day nonresident registration permit for the vehicle as prescribed by sections 28-2154 and 28-2154.01.

(b) An enrolled member of an Indian tribe who resides on the Indian reservation established for that tribe.

29. Tangible personal property purchased in this state by a nonprofit charitable organization that has qualified under section 501(c)(3) of the United States internal revenue code and that engages in and uses such property exclusively in programs for persons with mental or physical disabilities if the programs are exclusively for training, job placement, rehabilitation or testing.

30. Sales of tangible personal property by a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3), 501(c)(4) or 501(c)(6) of the internal revenue code if the organization is associated with a major league baseball team or a national touring professional golfing association and no part of the organization's net earnings inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.  This paragraph does not apply to an organization that is owned, managed or controlled, in whole or in part, by a major league baseball team, or its owners, officers, employees or agents, or by a major league baseball association or professional golfing association, or its owners, officers, employees or agents, unless the organization conducted or operated exhibition events in this state before January 1, 2018 that were exempt from taxation under section 42-5073.

31. Sales of commodities, as defined by title 7 United States Code section 2, that are consigned for resale in a warehouse in this state in or from which the commodity is deliverable on a contract for future delivery subject to the rules of a commodity market regulated by the United States commodity futures trading commission.

32. Sales of tangible personal property by a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3), 501(c)(4), 501(c)(6), 501(c)(7) or 501(c)(8) of the internal revenue code if the organization sponsors or operates a rodeo featuring primarily farm and ranch animals and no part of the organization's net earnings inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.

33. Sales of seeds, seedlings, roots, bulbs, cuttings and other propagative material to persons who use those items to commercially produce agricultural, horticultural, viticultural or floricultural crops in this state.

34. Machinery, equipment, technology or related supplies that are only useful to assist a person with a physical disability as defined in section 46-191 or a person who has a developmental disability as defined in section 36-551 or has a head injury as defined in section 41-3201 to be more independent and functional.

35. Sales of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas used to propel a motor vehicle.

36. Paper machine clothing, such as forming fabrics and dryer felts, sold to a paper manufacturer and directly used or consumed in paper manufacturing.

37. Coal, petroleum, coke, natural gas, virgin fuel oil and electricity sold to a qualified environmental technology manufacturer, producer or processor as defined in section 41-1514.02 and directly used or consumed in the generation or provision of on-site power or energy solely for environmental technology manufacturing, producing or processing or environmental protection. This paragraph shall apply for twenty full consecutive calendar or fiscal years from the date the first paper manufacturing machine is placed in service. In the case of an environmental technology manufacturer, producer or processor who does not manufacture paper, the time period shall begin with the date the first manufacturing, processing or production equipment is placed in service.

38. Sales of liquid, solid or gaseous chemicals used in manufacturing, processing, fabricating, mining, refining, metallurgical operations, research and development and, beginning on January 1, 1999, printing, if using or consuming the chemicals, alone or as part of an integrated system of chemicals, involves direct contact with the materials from which the product is produced for the purpose of causing or permitting a chemical or physical change to occur in the materials as part of the production process.  This paragraph does not include chemicals that are used or consumed in activities such as packaging, storage or transportation but does not affect any deduction for such chemicals that is otherwise provided by this section. For the purposes of this paragraph, "printing" means a commercial printing operation and includes job printing, engraving, embossing, copying and bookbinding.

39. Through December 31, 1994, personal property liquidation transactions, conducted by a personal property liquidator. From and after December 31, 1994, personal property liquidation transactions shall be taxable under this section provided that nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the taxation of casual activities or transactions under this chapter. For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a) "Personal property liquidation transaction" means a sale of personal property made by a personal property liquidator acting solely on behalf of the owner of the personal property sold at the dwelling of the owner or on the death of any owner, on behalf of the surviving spouse, if any, any devisee or heir or the personal representative of the estate of the deceased, if one has been appointed.

(b) "Personal property liquidator" means a person who is retained to conduct a sale in a personal property liquidation transaction.

40. Sales of food, drink and condiment for consumption within the premises of any prison, jail or other institution under the jurisdiction of the state department of corrections, the department of public safety, the department of juvenile corrections or a county sheriff.

41. A motor vehicle and any repair and replacement parts and tangible personal property becoming a part of such motor vehicle sold to a motor carrier who is subject to a fee prescribed in title 28, chapter 16, article 4 and who is engaged in the business of leasing or renting such property.

42. Sales of:

(a) Livestock and poultry to persons engaging in the businesses of farming, ranching or producing livestock or poultry.

(b) Livestock and poultry feed, salts, vitamins and other additives for livestock or poultry consumption that are sold to persons for use or consumption by their own livestock or poultry, for use or consumption in the businesses of farming, ranching and producing or feeding livestock, poultry, or livestock or poultry products or for use or consumption in noncommercial boarding of livestock. For the purposes of this paragraph, "poultry" includes ratites.

43. Sales of implants used as growth promotants and injectable medicines, not already exempt under paragraph 8 of this subsection, for livestock or poultry owned by or in possession of persons who are engaged in producing livestock, poultry, or livestock or poultry products or who are engaged in feeding livestock or poultry commercially. For the purposes of this paragraph, "poultry" includes ratites.

44. Sales of motor vehicles at auction to nonresidents of this state for use outside this state if the vehicles are shipped or delivered out of this state, regardless of where title to the motor vehicles passes or its free on board point.

45. Tangible personal property sold to a person engaged in business and subject to tax under the transient lodging classification if the tangible personal property is a personal hygiene item or articles used by human beings for food, drink or condiment, except alcoholic beverages, that are furnished without additional charge to and intended to be consumed by the transient during the transient's occupancy.

46. Sales of alternative fuel, as defined in section 1-215, to a used oil fuel burner who has received a permit to burn used oil or used oil fuel under section 49-426 or 49-480.

47. Sales of materials that are purchased by or for publicly funded libraries including school district libraries, charter school libraries, community college libraries, state university libraries or federal, state, county or municipal libraries for use by the public as follows:

(a) Printed or photographic materials, beginning August 7, 1985.

(b) Electronic or digital media materials, beginning July 17, 1994.

48. Tangible personal property sold to a commercial airline and consisting of food, beverages and condiments and accessories used for serving the food and beverages, if those items are to be provided without additional charge to passengers for consumption in flight. For the purposes of this paragraph, "commercial airline" means a person holding a federal certificate of public convenience and necessity or foreign air carrier permit for air transportation to transport persons, property or United States mail in intrastate, interstate or foreign commerce.

49. Sales of alternative fuel vehicles if the vehicle was manufactured as a diesel fuel vehicle and converted to operate on alternative fuel and equipment that is installed in a conventional diesel fuel motor vehicle to convert the vehicle to operate on an alternative fuel, as defined in section 1-215.

50. Sales of any spirituous, vinous or malt liquor by a person that is licensed in this state as a wholesaler by the department of liquor licenses and control pursuant to title 4, chapter 2, article 1.

51. Sales of tangible personal property to be incorporated or installed as part of environmental response or remediation activities under section 42-5075, subsection B, paragraph 6.

52. Sales of tangible personal property by a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(6) of the internal revenue code if the organization produces, organizes or promotes cultural or civic related festivals or events and no part of the organization's net earnings inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.

53. Application services that are designed to assess or test student learning or to promote curriculum design or enhancement purchased by or for any school district, charter school, community college or state university.  For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a) "Application services" means software applications provided remotely using hypertext transfer protocol or another network protocol.

(b) "Curriculum design or enhancement" means planning, implementing or reporting on courses of study, lessons, assignments or other learning activities.

54. Sales of motor vehicle fuel and use fuel to a qualified business under section 41-1516 for off-road use in harvesting, processing or transporting qualifying forest products removed from qualifying projects as defined in section 41-1516.

55. Sales of repair parts installed in equipment used directly by a qualified business under section 41-1516 in harvesting, processing or transporting qualifying forest products removed from qualifying projects as defined in section 41-1516.

56. Sales or other transfers of renewable energy credits or any other unit created to track energy derived from renewable energy resources.  For the purposes of this paragraph, "renewable energy credit" means a unit created administratively by the corporation commission or governing body of a public power utility to track kilowatt hours of electricity derived from a renewable energy resource or the kilowatt hour equivalent of conventional energy resources displaced by distributed renewable energy resources.

57. Computer data center equipment sold to the owner, operator or qualified colocation tenant of a computer data center that is certified by the Arizona commerce authority under section 41-1519 or an authorized agent of the owner, operator or qualified colocation tenant during the qualification period for use in the qualified computer data center. For the purposes of this paragraph, "computer data center", "computer data center equipment", "qualification period" and "qualified colocation tenant" have the same meanings prescribed in section 41-1519.

58. Orthodontic devices dispensed by a dental professional who is licensed under title 32, chapter 11 to a patient as part of the practice of dentistry.

59. Sales of tangible personal property incorporated or fabricated into a project described in section 42-5075, subsection O, that is located within the exterior boundaries of an Indian reservation for which the owner, as defined in section 42-5075, of the project is an Indian tribe or an affiliated Indian. For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a) "Affiliated Indian" means an individual native American Indian who is duly registered on the tribal rolls of the Indian tribe for whose benefit the Indian reservation was established.

(b) "Indian reservation" means all lands that are within the limits of areas set aside by the United States for the exclusive use and occupancy of an Indian tribe by treaty, law or executive order and that are recognized as Indian reservations by the United States department of the interior.

(c) "Indian tribe" means any organized nation, tribe, band or community that is recognized as an Indian tribe by the United States department of the interior and includes any entity formed under the laws of the Indian tribe.

60. Sales of works of fine art, as defined in section 44-1771, at an art auction or gallery in this state to nonresidents of this state for use outside this state if the vendor ships or delivers the work of fine art to a destination outside this state.

B. In addition to the deductions from the tax base prescribed by subsection A of this section, the gross proceeds of sales or gross income derived from sales of the following categories of tangible personal property shall be deducted from the tax base:

1. Machinery, or equipment, used directly in manufacturing, processing, fabricating, job printing, refining or metallurgical operations. The terms "manufacturing", "processing", "fabricating", "job printing", "refining" and "metallurgical" as used in this paragraph refer to and include those operations commonly understood within their ordinary meaning. "Metallurgical operations" includes leaching, milling, precipitating, smelting and refining.

2. Mining machinery, or equipment, used directly in the process of extracting ores or minerals from the earth for commercial purposes, including equipment required to prepare the materials for extraction and handling, loading or transporting such extracted material to the surface.  "Mining" includes underground, surface and open pit operations for extracting ores and minerals.

3. Tangible personal property sold to persons engaged in business classified under the telecommunications classification, including a person representing or working on behalf of such a person in a manner described in section 42-5075, subsection O, and consisting of central office switching equipment, switchboards, private branch exchange equipment, microwave radio equipment and carrier equipment including optical fiber, coaxial cable and other transmission media that are components of carrier systems.

4. Machinery, equipment or transmission lines used directly in producing or transmitting electrical power, but not including distribution. Transformers and control equipment used at transmission substation sites constitute equipment used in producing or transmitting electrical power.

5. Neat animals, horses, asses, sheep, ratites, swine or goats used or to be used as breeding or production stock, including sales of breedings or ownership shares in such animals used for breeding or production.

6. Pipes or valves four inches in diameter or larger used to transport oil, natural gas, artificial gas, water or coal slurry, including compressor units, regulators, machinery and equipment, fittings, seals and any other part that is used in operating the pipes or valves.

7. Aircraft, navigational and communication instruments and other accessories and related equipment sold to:

(a) A person:

(i) Holding, or exempted by federal law from obtaining, a federal certificate of public convenience and necessity for use as, in conjunction with or becoming part of an aircraft to be used to transport persons for hire in intrastate, interstate or foreign commerce.

(ii) That is certificated or licensed under federal aviation administration regulations (14 Code of Federal Regulations part 121 or 135) as a scheduled or unscheduled carrier of persons for hire for use as or in conjunction with or becoming part of an aircraft to be used to transport persons for hire in intrastate, interstate or foreign commerce.

(iii) Holding a foreign air carrier permit for air transportation for use as or in conjunction with or becoming a part of aircraft to be used to transport persons, property or United States mail in intrastate, interstate or foreign commerce.

(iv) Operating an aircraft to transport persons in any manner for compensation or hire, or for use in a fractional ownership program that meets the requirements of federal aviation administration regulations (14 Code of Federal Regulations part 91, subpart K), including as an air carrier, a foreign air carrier or a commercial operator or under a restricted category, within the meaning of 14 Code of Federal Regulations, regardless of whether the operation or aircraft is regulated or certified under part 91, 119, 121, 133, 135, 136 or 137, or another part of 14 Code of Federal Regulations.

(v) That will lease or otherwise transfer operational control, within the meaning of federal aviation administration operations specification A008, or its successor, of the aircraft, instruments or accessories to one or more persons described in item (i), (ii), (iii) or (iv) of this subdivision, subject to section 42-5009, subsection Q.

(b) Any foreign government.

(c) Persons who are not residents of this state and who will not use such property in this state other than in removing such property from this state. This subdivision also applies to corporations that are not incorporated in this state, regardless of maintaining a place of business in this state, if the principal corporate office is located outside this state and the property will not be used in this state other than in removing the property from this state.

8. Machinery, tools, equipment and related supplies used or consumed directly in repairing, remodeling or maintaining aircraft, aircraft engines or aircraft component parts by or on behalf of a certificated or licensed carrier of persons or property.

9. Railroad rolling stock, rails, ties and signal control equipment used directly to transport persons or property.

10. Machinery or equipment used directly to drill for oil or gas or used directly in the process of extracting oil or gas from the earth for commercial purposes.

11. Buses or other urban mass transit vehicles that are used directly to transport persons or property for hire or pursuant to a governmentally adopted and controlled urban mass transportation program and that are sold to bus companies holding a federal certificate of convenience and necessity or operated by any city, town or other governmental entity or by any person contracting with such governmental entity as part of a governmentally adopted and controlled program to provide urban mass transportation.

12. Groundwater measuring devices required under section 45-604.

13. New machinery and equipment consisting of agricultural aircraft, tractors, tractor-drawn implements, self-powered implements, machinery and equipment necessary for extracting milk, and machinery and equipment necessary for cooling milk and livestock, and drip irrigation lines not already exempt under paragraph 6 of this subsection and that are used for commercial production of agricultural, horticultural, viticultural and floricultural crops and products in this state. For the purposes of this paragraph:

(a) "New machinery and equipment" means machinery and equipment that have never been sold at retail except pursuant to leases or rentals that do not total two years or more.

(b) "Self-powered implements" includes machinery and equipment that are electric-powered.

14. Machinery or equipment used in research and development. For the purposes of this paragraph, "research and development" means basic and applied research in the sciences and engineering, and designing, developing or testing prototypes, processes or new products, including research and development of computer software that is embedded in or an integral part of the prototype or new product or that is required for machinery or equipment otherwise exempt under this section to function effectively. Research and development do not include manufacturing quality control, routine consumer product testing, market research, sales promotion, sales service, research in social sciences or psychology, computer software research that is not included in the definition of research and development, or other nontechnological activities or technical services.

15. Tangible personal property that is used by either of the following to receive, store, convert, produce, generate, decode, encode, control or transmit telecommunications information:

(a) Any direct broadcast satellite television or data transmission service that operates pursuant to 47 Code of Federal Regulations part 25.

(b) Any satellite television or data transmission facility, if both of the following conditions are met:

(i) Over two-thirds of the transmissions, measured in megabytes, transmitted by the facility during the test period were transmitted to or on behalf of one or more direct broadcast satellite television or data transmission services that operate pursuant to 47 Code of Federal Regulations part 25.

(ii) Over two-thirds of the transmissions, measured in megabytes, transmitted by or on behalf of those direct broadcast television or data transmission services during the test period were transmitted by the facility to or on behalf of those services.

For the purposes of subdivision (b) of this paragraph, "test period" means the three hundred sixty-five day period beginning on the later of the date on which the tangible personal property is purchased or the date on which the direct broadcast satellite television or data transmission service first transmits information to its customers.

16. Clean rooms that are used for manufacturing, processing, fabrication or research and development, as defined in paragraph 14 of this subsection, of semiconductor products. For the purposes of this paragraph, "clean room" means all property that comprises or creates an environment where humidity, temperature, particulate matter and contamination are precisely controlled within specified parameters, without regard to whether the property is actually contained within that environment or whether any of the property is affixed to or incorporated into real property.  Clean room:

(a) Includes the integrated systems, fixtures, piping, movable partitions, lighting and all property that is necessary or adapted to reduce contamination or to control airflow, temperature, humidity, chemical purity or other environmental conditions or manufacturing tolerances, as well as the production machinery and equipment operating in conjunction with the clean room environment.

(b) Does not include the building or other permanent, nonremovable component of the building that houses the clean room environment.

17. Machinery and equipment used directly in the feeding of poultry, the environmental control of housing for poultry, the movement of eggs within a production and packaging facility or the sorting or cooling of eggs.  This exemption does not apply to vehicles used for transporting eggs.

18. Machinery or equipment, including related structural components, that is employed in connection with manufacturing, processing, fabricating, job printing, refining, mining, natural gas pipelines, metallurgical operations, telecommunications, producing or transmitting electricity or research and development and that is used directly to meet or exceed rules or regulations adopted by the federal energy regulatory commission, the United States environmental protection agency, the United States nuclear regulatory commission, the Arizona department of environmental quality or a political subdivision of this state to prevent, monitor, control or reduce land, water or air pollution.

19. Machinery and equipment that are sold to a person engaged in the commercial production of livestock, livestock products or agricultural, horticultural, viticultural or floricultural crops or products in this state, including a person representing or working on behalf of such a person in a manner described in section 42-5075, subsection O, if the machinery and equipment are used directly and primarily to prevent, monitor, control or reduce air, water or land pollution.

20. Machinery or equipment that enables a television station to originate and broadcast or to receive and broadcast digital television signals and that was purchased to facilitate compliance with the telecommunications act of 1996 (P.L. 104-104; 110 Stat. 56; 47 United States Code section 336) and the federal communications commission order issued April 21, 1997 (47 Code of Federal Regulations part 73). This paragraph does not exempt any of the following:

(a) Repair or replacement parts purchased for the machinery or equipment described in this paragraph.

(b) Machinery or equipment purchased to replace machinery or equipment for which an exemption was previously claimed and taken under this paragraph.

(c) Any machinery or equipment purchased after the television station has ceased analog broadcasting, or purchased after November 1, 2009, whichever occurs first.

21. Qualifying equipment that is purchased from and after June 30, 2004 through June 30, 2024 by a qualified business under section 41-1516 for harvesting or processing qualifying forest products removed from qualifying projects as defined in section 41-1516. To qualify for this deduction, the qualified business at the time of purchase must present its certification approved by the department.

C. The deductions provided by subsection B of this section do not include sales of:

1. Expendable materials. For the purposes of this paragraph, expendable materials do not include any of the categories of tangible personal property specified in subsection B of this section regardless of the cost or useful life of that property.

2. Janitorial equipment and hand tools.

3. Office equipment, furniture and supplies.

4. Tangible personal property used in selling or distributing activities, other than the telecommunications transmissions described in subsection B, paragraph 15 of this section.

5. Motor vehicles required to be licensed by this state, except buses or other urban mass transit vehicles specifically exempted pursuant to subsection B, paragraph 11 of this section, without regard to the use of such motor vehicles.

6. Shops, buildings, docks, depots and all other materials of whatever kind or character not specifically included as exempt.

7. Motors and pumps used in drip irrigation systems.

8. Machinery and equipment or other tangible personal property used by a contractor in the performance of a contract.

D. In addition to the deductions from the tax base prescribed by subsection A of this section, there shall be deducted from the tax base the gross proceeds of sales or gross income derived from sales of machinery, equipment, materials and other tangible personal property used directly and predominantly to construct a qualified environmental technology manufacturing, producing or processing facility as described in section 41-1514.02. This subsection applies for ten full consecutive calendar or fiscal years after the start of initial construction.

E. In computing the tax base, gross proceeds of sales or gross income from retail sales of heavy trucks and trailers does not include any amount attributable to federal excise taxes imposed by 26 United States Code section 4051.

F. If a person is engaged in an occupation or business to which subsection A of this section applies, the person's books shall be kept so as to show separately the gross proceeds of sales of tangible personal property and the gross income from sales of services, and if not so kept the tax shall be imposed on the total of the person's gross proceeds of sales of tangible personal property and gross income from services.

G. If a person is engaged in the business of selling tangible personal property at both wholesale and retail, the tax under this section applies only to the gross proceeds of the sales made other than at wholesale if the person's books are kept so as to show separately the gross proceeds of sales of each class, and if the books are not so kept, the tax under this section applies to the gross proceeds of every sale so made.

H. A person who engages in manufacturing, baling, crating, boxing, barreling, canning, bottling, sacking, preserving, processing or otherwise preparing for sale or commercial use any livestock, agricultural or horticultural product or any other product, article, substance or commodity and who sells the product of such business at retail in this state is deemed, as to such sales, to be engaged in business classified under the retail classification. This subsection does not apply to:

1. Agricultural producers who are owners, proprietors or tenants of agricultural lands, orchards, farms or gardens where agricultural products are grown, raised or prepared for market and who are marketing their own agricultural products.

2. Businesses classified under the:

(a) Transporting classification.

(b) Utilities classification.

(c) Telecommunications classification.

(d) Pipeline classification.

(e) Private car line classification.

(f) Publication classification.

(g) Job printing classification.

(h) Prime contracting classification.

(i) Restaurant classification.

I. The gross proceeds of sales or gross income derived from the following shall be deducted from the tax base for the retail classification:

1. Sales made directly to the United States government or its departments or agencies by a manufacturer, modifier, assembler or repairer.

2. Sales made directly to a manufacturer, modifier, assembler or repairer if such sales are of any ingredient or component part of products sold directly to the United States government or its departments or agencies by the manufacturer, modifier, assembler or repairer.

3. Overhead materials or other tangible personal property that is used in performing a contract between the United States government and a manufacturer, modifier, assembler or repairer, including property used in performing a subcontract with a government contractor who is a manufacturer, modifier, assembler or repairer, to which title passes to the government under the terms of the contract or subcontract.

4. Sales of overhead materials or other tangible personal property to a manufacturer, modifier, assembler or repairer if the gross proceeds of sales or gross income derived from the property by the manufacturer, modifier, assembler or repairer will be exempt under paragraph 3 of this subsection.

J. There shall be deducted from the tax base fifty percent of the gross proceeds or gross income from any sale of tangible personal property made directly to the United States government or its departments or agencies that is not deducted under subsection I of this section.

K. The department shall require every person claiming a deduction provided by subsection I or J of this section to file on forms prescribed by the department at such times as the department directs a sworn statement disclosing the name of the purchaser and the exact amount of sales on which the exclusion or deduction is claimed.

L. In computing the tax base, gross proceeds of sales or gross income does not include:

1. A manufacturer's cash rebate on the sales price of a motor vehicle if the buyer assigns the buyer's right in the rebate to the retailer.

2. The waste tire disposal fee imposed pursuant to section 44-1302.

M. There shall be deducted from the tax base the amount received from sales of solar energy devices. The retailer shall register with the department as a solar energy retailer. By registering, the retailer acknowledges that it will make its books and records relating to sales of solar energy devices available to the department for examination.

N. In computing the tax base in the case of the sale or transfer of wireless telecommunications equipment as an inducement to a customer to enter into or continue a contract for telecommunications services that are taxable under section 42-5064, gross proceeds of sales or gross income does not include any sales commissions or other compensation received by the retailer as a result of the customer entering into or continuing a contract for the telecommunications services.

O. For the purposes of this section, a sale of wireless telecommunications equipment to a person who holds the equipment for sale or transfer to a customer as an inducement to enter into or continue a contract for telecommunications services that are taxable under section 42-5064 is considered to be a sale for resale in the regular course of business.

P. Retail sales of prepaid calling cards or prepaid authorization numbers for telecommunications services, including sales of reauthorization of a prepaid card or authorization number, are subject to tax under this section.

Q. For the purposes of this section, the diversion of gas from a pipeline by a person engaged in the business of:

1. Operating a natural or artificial gas pipeline, for the sole purpose of fueling compressor equipment to pressurize the pipeline, is not a sale of the gas to the operator of the pipeline.

2. Converting natural gas into liquefied natural gas, for the sole purpose of fueling compressor equipment used in the conversion process, is not a sale of gas to the operator of the compressor equipment.

R. For the purposes of this section, the transfer of title or possession of coal from an owner or operator of a power plant to a person in the business of refining coal is not a sale of coal if both of the following apply:

1. The transfer of title or possession of the coal is for the purpose of refining the coal.

2. The title or possession of the coal is transferred back to the owner or operator of the power plant after completion of the coal refining process. For the purposes of this paragraph, "coal refining process" means the application of a coal additive system that aids in the reduction of power plant emissions during the combustion of coal and the treatment of flue gas.

S. If a seller is entitled to a deduction pursuant to subsection B, paragraph 15, subdivision (b) of this section, the department may require the purchaser to establish that the requirements of subsection B, paragraph 15, subdivision (b) of this section have been satisfied. If the purchaser cannot establish that the requirements of subsection B, paragraph 15, subdivision (b) of this section have been satisfied, the purchaser is liable in an amount equal to any tax, penalty and interest that the seller would have been required to pay under article 1 of this chapter if the seller had not made a deduction pursuant to subsection B, paragraph 15, subdivision (b) of this section. Payment of the amount under this subsection exempts the purchaser from liability for any tax imposed under article 4 of this chapter and related to the tangible personal property purchased. The amount shall be treated as transaction privilege tax to the purchaser and as tax revenues collected from the seller to designate the distribution base pursuant to section 42-5029.

T. For the purposes of section 42-5032.01, the department shall separately account for revenues collected under the retail classification from businesses selling tangible personal property at retail:

1. On the premises of a multipurpose facility that is owned, leased or operated by the tourism and sports authority pursuant to title 5, chapter 8.

2. At professional football contests that are held in a stadium located on the campus of an institution under the jurisdiction of the Arizona board of regents.

U. In computing the tax base for the sale of a motor vehicle to a nonresident of this state, if the purchaser's state of residence allows a corresponding use tax exemption to the tax imposed by article 1 of this chapter and the rate of the tax in the purchaser's state of residence is lower than the rate prescribed in article 1 of this chapter or if the purchaser's state of residence does not impose an excise tax, and the nonresident has secured a special ninety day nonresident registration permit for the vehicle as prescribed by sections 28-2154 and 28-2154.01, there shall be deducted from the tax base a portion of the gross proceeds or gross income from the sale so that the amount of transaction privilege tax that is paid in this state is equal to the excise tax that is imposed by the purchaser's state of residence on the nonexempt sale or use of the motor vehicle.

V. For the purposes of this section:

1. "Agricultural aircraft" means an aircraft that is built for agricultural use for the aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer or for aerial seeding.

2. "Aircraft" includes:

(a) An airplane flight simulator that is approved by the federal aviation administration for use as a phase II or higher flight simulator under appendix H, 14 Code of Federal Regulations part 121.

(b) Tangible personal property that is permanently affixed or attached as a component part of an aircraft that is owned or operated by a certificated or licensed carrier of persons or property.

3. "Other accessories and related equipment" includes aircraft accessories and equipment such as ground service equipment that physically contact aircraft at some point during the overall carrier operation.

4. "Selling at retail" means a sale for any purpose other than for resale in the regular course of business in the form of tangible personal property, but transfer of possession, lease and rental as used in the definition of sale mean only such transactions as are found on investigation to be in lieu of sales as defined without the words lease or rental.

W. For the purposes of subsection I of this section:

1. "Assembler" means a person who unites or combines products, wares or articles of manufacture so as to produce a change in form or substance without changing or altering the component parts.

2. "Manufacturer" means a person who is principally engaged in the fabrication, production or manufacture of products, wares or articles for use from raw or prepared materials, imparting to those materials new forms, qualities, properties and combinations.

3. "Modifier" means a person who reworks, changes or adds to products, wares or articles of manufacture.

4. "Overhead materials" means tangible personal property, the gross proceeds of sales or gross income derived from that would otherwise be included in the retail classification, and that are used or consumed in the performance of a contract, the cost of which is charged to an overhead expense account and allocated to various contracts based on generally accepted accounting principles and consistent with government contract accounting standards.

5. "Repairer" means a person who restores or renews products, wares or articles of manufacture.

6. "Subcontract" means an agreement between a contractor and any person who is not an employee of the contractor for furnishing of supplies or services that, in whole or in part, are necessary to the performance of one or more government contracts, or under which any portion of the contractor's obligation under one or more government contracts is performed, undertaken or assumed and that includes provisions causing title to overhead materials or other tangible personal property used in the performance of the subcontract to pass to the government or that includes provisions incorporating such title passing clauses in a government contract into the subcontract.