36-2158. Informed consent; fetal condition; website; unprofessional conduct; civil relief; statute of limitations; definitions
A. A person shall not perform or induce an abortion without first obtaining the voluntary and informed consent of the woman on whom the abortion is to be performed or induced. Except in the case of a medical emergency and in addition to the other requirements of this chapter, consent to an abortion is voluntary and informed only if all of the following occur:
1. In the case of a woman seeking an abortion of her unborn child diagnosed with a lethal fetal condition, at least twenty-four hours before the abortion the physician who is to perform the abortion or the referring physician has informed the woman, orally and in person, that:
(a) Perinatal hospice services are available and the physician has offered this care as an alternative to abortion.
(b) The department of health services maintains a website that lists perinatal hospice programs that are available both in this state and nationally and that are organized geographically by location.
(c) The woman has a right to review the website and that a printed copy of the materials on the website will be provided to her free of charge if she chooses to review these materials.
2. In the case of a woman seeking an abortion of her unborn child diagnosed with a nonlethal fetal condition, at least twenty-four hours before the abortion the physician who is to perform the abortion or the referring physician has informed the woman, orally and in person:
(a) Of up-to-date, evidence-based information concerning the range of outcomes for individuals living with the diagnosed condition, including physical, developmental, educational and psychosocial outcomes.
(b) That the department of health services maintains a website that lists information regarding support services, hotlines, resource centers or clearinghouses, national and local peer support groups and other education and support programs available to assist the woman and her unborn child, any national or local registries of families willing to adopt newborns with the nonlethal fetal condition and contact information for adoption agencies willing to place newborns with the nonlethal fetal condition with families willing to adopt.
(c) That the woman has a right to review the website and that a printed copy of the materials on the website will be provided to her free of charge if she chooses to review these materials.
3. The woman certifies in writing before the abortion that the information required to be provided pursuant to this subsection has been provided.
B. The department of health services shall establish a website within ninety days after the effective date of this section and shall annually update the website. The website shall include the information prescribed in subsection A, paragraph 1, subdivision (b) and paragraph 2, subdivision (b) of this section.
C. A physician who knowingly violates this section commits an act of unprofessional conduct and is subject to license suspension or revocation pursuant to title 32, chapter 13 or 17.
D. In addition to other remedies available under the common or statutory law of this state, any of the following individuals may file a civil action to obtain appropriate relief for a violation of this section:
1. A woman on whom an abortion has been performed without her informed consent as required by this section.
2. The father of the unborn child if the father is married to the mother at the time she received the abortion, unless the pregnancy resulted from the father's criminal conduct.
3. The maternal grandparents of the unborn child if the mother was not at least eighteen years of age at the time of the abortion, unless the pregnancy resulted from either of the maternal grandparent's criminal conduct.
E. A civil action filed pursuant to subsection D of this section shall be brought in the superior court in the county in which the woman on whom the abortion was performed resides and may be based on a claim that failure to obtain informed consent was a result of simple negligence, gross negligence, wantonness, wilfulness, intention or any other legal standard of care. Relief pursuant to this subsection includes the following:
1. Money damages for all psychological, emotional and physical injuries resulting from the violation of this section.
2. Statutory damages in an amount equal to five thousand dollars or three times the cost of the abortion, whichever is greater.
3. Reasonable attorney fees and costs.
F. A civil action brought pursuant to this section must be initiated within six years after the violation occurred.
G. For the purposes of this section:
1. "Lethal fetal condition" means a fetal condition that is diagnosed before birth and that will result, with reasonable certainty, in the death of the unborn child within three months after birth.
2. "Nonlethal fetal condition" means a fetal condition that is diagnosed before birth and that will not result in the death of the unborn child within three months after birth but may result in physical or mental disability or abnormality.
3. "Perinatal hospice" means comprehensive support to the pregnant woman and her family that includes supportive care from the time of diagnosis through the time of birth and death of the infant and through the postpartum period. Supportive care may include counseling and medical care by maternal-fetal medical specialists, obstetricians, neonatologists, anesthesia specialists, clergy, social workers and specialty nurses who are focused on alleviating fear and ensuring that the woman and her family experience the life and death of the child in a comfortable and supportive environment.